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Hardwood Flooring Repair: What to Look For in Your Hardwood Flooring

Written by
Paul Galushkin
Published on
December 9, 2023

Hardwood Flooring Repair: What to Look For in Your Hardwood Flooring


When it comes to home maintenance and repair, hardwood flooring is often an area that requires special attention. The natural beauty of hardwood floors can add value and style to any home, but they are also susceptible to wear and damage over time. This is especially true in high traffic areas or homes with pets and children.

Fortunately, there are steps you can take to maintain and repair your wood floors, ensuring their longevity and beauty for years to come.

In this guide, we will discuss common issues that may arise with hardwood flooring and provide tips on how to repair them effectively.

Common Issues

Scratches and Scuffs

Scratches in the hardwood flooring

Two of the most common problems with prefinished wood floor are scratches and scuffs. These can be caused by furniture being dragged across the wooden floor, pet nails, or even high heels. While these may seem like minor issues, they can greatly detract from the appearance of your floors.

To repair scratches and scuffs on hardwood flooring, you can use a wood filler or putty stick in a matching color to fill in the damaged area. Once it is dry, lightly sand the area and apply a coat of finish to blend it in with the rest of the floor.

Dents and Gouges

Dents in the hardwood flooring

Similar to scratches and scuffs, dents and gouges can also occur on hardwood flooring. These are usually caused by heavy objects being dropped on the floor or sharp objects scraping against it.

To repair these types of damage, you can use a wood putty stick or filler that matches the color of your floor. Fill in the damaged area and sand it down until it is level with the rest of the flooring. You may also need to apply a coat of finish to blend it in.

Warping and Cupping

Hardwood floor warping

Another common issue with hardwood flooring is warping or cupping. This occurs when the wood absorbs moisture, causing it to expand and contract. This can be caused by water leaks, high humidity levels, or even spills that are not cleaned up quickly. If left untreated, warping and cupping can lead to permanent damage to your flooring.

To repair warped or cupped hardwood floors, it is important to identify the source of the moisture and address it first. Once the moisture issue is resolved, you can sand down the affected areas and use a dehumidifier to help dry out the wood. It may also be necessary to replace any severely damaged hardwood floorboard.


A stain on the hardwood floor

Stains on hardwood floors can be caused by a variety of substances, such as food, drinks, or pet accidents. These stains can be unsightly and difficult to remove if not addressed promptly.

To remove stains, you can use a mixture of water and vinegar or a specialized hardwood floor cleaner. Gently scrub the stain in a circular motion until it is lifted. If the stain remains, you may need to sand down the area and reapply finish.

Preventative Maintenance

Regular Cleaning

Mopping hardwood

Regular cleaning is a critical part of maintaining your hardwood floors. Dust, dirt, and grit can act like sandpaper, scratching and dulling your floor's finish over time. Sweeping or vacuuming your floor daily can help keep this to a minimum.

For a deeper clean, use a damp mop along with a gentle, pH-neutral cleaner specifically designed for hardwood floors. Avoid using excessive water, as this can lead to warping and cupping.

Avoid Shoes Indoors

Dirty shoes on hardwood

High-heeled shoes or shoes with hard soles can cause scratches and dents on your hardwood floor. As a preventive measure, make it a rule to remove shoes at the door. This not only reduces the potential for damage but also keeps dirt and grit from being tracked onto your floors.

Use Furniture Pads

Furniture on pads

Furniture can cause significant damage to hardwood floors. To prevent scratches and dents, attach felt pads to the bottom of all furniture legs. Be sure to check these regularly, as they can wear down over time and need to be replaced.

Control Humidity Levels

A dehumidifier

Hardwood floors can warp or cup due to changes in humidity. To prevent this, try to maintain a consistent indoor humidity level between 30% and 50%. Using dehumidifiers in the summer and humidifiers in the winter can help maintain these levels.

Promptly Address Spills

A man cleaning up spills

Lastly, always clean up spills as soon as they occur to prevent staining and warping. For stubborn stains, use a wood-friendly cleaner and gently scrub the area.

If the stain remains, you may need to sand and refinish the affected area.

Hardwood Repair Process

Two professionals repairing hardwood flooring
  1. Identify the Damage: The first step to effectively repair hardwood floors is to identify the type and extent of the damage. Whether it's a small scratch or scuff, a large gouge or dent, a stain, or warping/cupping, each type of damage requires a different approach for repair. Carefully inspect your floor to determine the cause and extent of damage.
  2. Gather Your Tools: Depending on the type of damage, you will need different tools and materials for repair. These often include wood filler or putty, sandpaper, a putty knife, a hardwood floor cleaner, circular saw, wood glue, and a matching finish. It's important to gather all necessary tools before you begin to ensure a smooth and efficient repair process.
  3. Prepare the Area: Before beginning the repair, clean the damaged area thoroughly to remove any dirt or debris. If you're addressing a scratch or dent, this might involve carefully scraping away any loose wood fibers. If you're dealing with a stain, use a hardwood floor cleaner to remove as much of the stain as possible.
  4. Apply Wood Filler or Putty: For scratches, scuffs, dents, and gouges, apply a wood filler or putty that matches your floor color. Using a putty knife, carefully fill in the damaged area, making sure to overfill slightly as the filler will shrink as it dries. Let the filler dry according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  5. Sand the Area: Once the filler is dry, sand the area until it is flush with the rest of the floor. Use fine-grit sandpaper to avoid causing further damage to the surrounding wood. Wipe away any dust with a damp cloth.
  6. Apply Finish: After sanding, apply a coat of finish or wood stain that matches your floor. Depending on your type of floor, this might be a specific type of oil, wax, or polyurethane. Apply the finish as directed by the manufacturer, and allow it to dry completely.
  7. Address Warping or Cupping: If you're dealing with warping or cupping, the first step is to address the source of the moisture causing the problem. This might involve fixing a leak, using a dehumidifier to reduce humidity, or cleaning up spills quickly. Once the source of moisture is addressed, you might need to sand down the affected area or remove boards from the floor joists and replace the damaged ones.
  8. Post-Repair Maintenance: After the repair is complete, it's vital to maintain your hardwood floors properly to prevent future damage. This includes regular cleaning, using furniture pads, controlling indoor humidity levels, and addressing spills promptly. By taking these steps, you can keep your hardwood floors looking beautiful for years to come.

Always remember, while minor damage can often be repaired by homeowners, extensive damage or complex repairs may require professional help.

Don't hesitate to reach out to a professional if you're unsure about the repair process.

Commonly Asked Questions

1. Can I Use Any Wood Filler for My Hardwood Floor Repair?

Different types of wood filler are designed to match different types of wood, so it's important to choose a filler that matches your specific floor. Some fillers are also stainable, which means you can customize the color to match your floor. Remember, the closer the match, the less noticeable your repair will be.

2. How Often Should I Clean My Hardwood Floors?

The frequency of cleaning depends on the amount of foot traffic your floor receives, but a good rule of thumb is to sweep or vacuum daily and mop weekly. Remember to use a gentle, pH-neutral cleaner and avoid using excessive water.

3. Why Do I Need to Control the Humidity Levels in My Home?

Hardwood floors can expand and contract with changes in humidity. High humidity can cause the boards to swell and warp, while low humidity can cause them to shrink and create gaps between the boards. Maintaining a consistent indoor humidity level of 30% to 50% can help prevent these issues.

4. How Can I Protect My Hardwood Floors from Furniture Damage?

Felt pads can be attached to the bottom of furniture legs to prevent scratches and dents. These pads should be checked regularly for wear and replaced as needed. Larger, heavier pieces of furniture may benefit from the use of furniture coasters to further distribute the weight and prevent damage.

5. What Should I Do If I See a Stain on My Hardwood Floor?

Act promptly to clean up stains. The longer a stain sits, the more difficult it will be to remove. Use a hardwood floor cleaner and gently scrub the area. If the stain remains after cleaning, you may need to sand the area and reapply finish.

6. What If I Can't Match the Finish After Sanding and Repair?

In cases where the original finish cannot be matched, you may consider sanding and refinishing the entire floor. This is more labor-intensive, but it can provide a consistent, brand-new look to your floor.

7. Is There a Way to Prevent Scratches from Pets?

Keeping your pet's nails trimmed can help prevent scratches. Additionally, laying down area rugs or runners in high-traffic areas can protect your floors from potential damage.

8. Can All Hardwood Floors Be Refinished?

While most hardwood floors can be sanded and refinished, some engineered hardwood floors have a thin veneer that can't withstand the sanding process. Always check with the manufacturer or a wood flooring professional if you're uncertain.

9. Can Water Spills Cause Permanent Damage to Hardwood Floors?

Yes, water can cause permanent damage if not promptly cleaned up. Water can seep into the wood, causing it to swell, warp, or discolor. Always clean up spills immediately to minimize potential damage.

10. When Should I Consider Hiring a Professional?

While minor scratches and dents can often be repaired yourself, more extensive hardwood floor damage or complex repairs may require a professional's help. Additionally, if you're uncomfortable with any part of the repair process, or if your attempts at repair haven't yielded the desired results, it's wise to call in a professional.

Nice hardwood flooring


Proper maintenance and prompt repair of hardwood floors can extend their lifespan and keep them looking beautiful. By following these tips, you can tackle common issues with your hardwood floors and keep them in top condition for years to come.

Remember, when in doubt, don't hesitate to seek professional help to ensure the best results for your floor.  So go ahead, enjoy the warmth and beauty of hardwood floors in your home without worrying about unsightly damage.

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